You can find different chemical bond types. Some bonds involve a transfer of electrons. Others involve a sharing of electrons. Still other bonds are weak attractions among molecules.
Ions are created by atoms which have non full outermost electron shells in order to be more like the noble gases within Group 8 of the Periodic Table. Some atoms add electrons to have a full shell, therefore becoming a negative ion. Other atoms take away electrons from their outermost shell, leaving a full shell and an overall positive charge on the ion.
Chemical bonds are created due to rearrangement of electrons among atoms with the impact of lower the energy of the system overall. The chemical bond is actually a binding force to keep atoms together to make an aggregate with sufficient stability for that chemists to consider the aggregate an independent species. You can find three main types of chemical bonds.
Types of Bonds
These are formed because of electron transfer between an electronegative element and an electropositive element to make anions and cations. The electrostatic attraction between anions and cations form the ionic bond. E.g., NaCl.
These are formed due to sharing of electrons between 2 electronegative atoms. Both atomic nuclei attract the shared electrons which are generally positioned at the midpoint between both bonding nuclei, leading to a net attractive force between the two nuclei.
Metallic bonds form once the outer shell electrons are shared among neighboring atoms. As opposed to covalent bonding however, you can find insufficient numbers of electrons in many metal atoms (such as silver or copper) to create pure covalent bonds.
The strongest chemical bonds are covalent bonds and are created by the sharing of a set of electrons. The energy of a typical single covalent bond is ~80 kilocalories for each mole (kcal/mol). However, this bond energy can differ from ~50 kcal/mol to ~110 kcal/mol according to the elements involved.
Once created, covalent bonds rarely break spontaneously. This is because of simple energetic considerations; the thermal energy of any molecule at room temperature (298 K) is just ~0.6 kcal/mol, much less than the energy needed to break a covalent bond.Covalent bonds also can have partial charges whenever the atoms involved have various electronegativities. Water is perhaps one of the most obvious example of a molecule having partial charges.