Taxonomy is actually the science of describing, naming and classifying organisms and contains all animals, plants and microorganisms from the world. Using behavioural, morphological, genetic and biochemical observations, taxonomists identify, describe and arrange species into classifications, which includes those that are fresh to science.
Taxonomy enumerates and identifies the elements of biological diversity providing basic understanding underpinning management and implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Unfortunately, taxonomic understanding is far from complete. In the past 250 years of study, taxonomists have named about 1.78 million species of plants, animals and micro-organisms, yet the overall number of species is not known and probably between 5 and 30 million.
How to Name a Species: the Taxonomic Process
Taxonomists start by sorting specimens to split up sets they believe symbolize species. When the specimens are sorted the next task is to see whether or not they already have names. This might involve working via identification guides, reading descriptions written perhaps 200 years ago and borrowing named specimens from herbaria or museums to compare with the sample.
Aristotle is credited with making the first classification system greater than 2,000 years back. He classified living things as animal or plant based on their appearance. This system had been expanded later on by the Romans to be more specific down to the individual organism types, for example elm tree or a cow. As more organisms have been classified and identified, more terms were needed to separate related organisms, including two kinds of dog. So new organisms have been classified by using extended descriptors, which at some point became cumbersome to utilize as more organisms developed the need for additional words.
Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist, started the struggle to classify all living things through proposing a binomial or two-name system. In this model, the genus is the very first name and the species is the 2nd name, with the first letter of the genus name usually capitalized. Therefore, every organism is sorted by a species classification, genus, for example Homo sapien for man. Linnaeus also proposed to expand the genus-species nomenclature to contain larger units of likeness, for recognizing lengthy degrees of kinship. Nowadays, the categories are still depending on Linnaeus's work.
Taxonomy classification is the science of organisms. Biologists categorize organisms according to their evolutionary interactions, using a hierarchical system of grouping by discussed features. The basic unit of existence on Earth is exactly what biologists refer to as the species. Even though concept of a natural unit with regard to classification is essential to many fields inside the biological sciences, biologists are much from agreeing on its exact definition and the meaning of a species may differ somewhat according to the type of biologist you question.
The biological species concept says that a species is a series of population or a populations whose associates are able to interbreed openly under natural circumstances and who do not breed with other species. Although you can find exceptions to and difficulties with this definition, it works for many organisms. A simpler method to define species, which is not complete however will work for younger audiences, is that a species is a unit of classification that describes a population (group) or series of populations (group) of closely similar and related organisms.