Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry




Foundations of Inorganic ChemistryThe nucleus contains protons and neutrons. The diameter of a nucleus is 10 15 m.

Particle Mass Charge

proton 1 : 672 10 27 kg +1 : 602 10 19 C

neutron 1 : 675 10 27 kg none

electron 9 : 109 10 31 kg 1 : 602 10 19 C m ( p + ) m ( e ) 1840 

Atomic number ( Z ) = number of protons in the nucleus Mass number ( A ) = number of protons + number of neutrons

Symbol: A Z X, 12 6 C

Isotopes: atoms for the same elements with different masses e.g 1 1 H, 2 1 H, 3 1 H 

Atomic mass unit: exactly 1/12 of the mass of an atom of 12 6 C (1 amu = 1 : 6606 10 27 kg) On this scale the atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794 amu. 

Relative atomic mass: atomic weight divided by the atomic mass unit Relative atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794. 

In the molecules two or more atoms are bonded together.

An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carries an electric charge. Ions that possess a positive charge are called cations. Those carrying negative charge are called anions.

A radical is a group of atoms which have odd number of electrons.

Isotopes: atoms for the same elements with different masses e.g 1 1 H, 2 1 H, 3 1 H 

History of Inorganic Chemistry 

History of inorganic chemistry: Inorganic chemistry is the discipline which studies the chemistry of the elements of the periodic table. Traditionally, the chemistry of compounds containing several carbon atoms is grouped separately as organic chemistry. 

Humanity has always tried to use minerals and metals for a variety of purposes but we can define the birth of the discipline with the discovery and classification of a large number of elements around the end of the 18th century. 

Then the synthesis or analytical characterization of compounds led to the discovery of periodic properties and eventually to the organization of the elements in the periodic table. 

In the first half of the 20th century the basic industrial in organic chemistry established a big progress in the industrialized countries with the synthesis of NH3 (and of HNO 3 ), Na 2 CO 3 , H 2 SO 4 etc. 

In the second half of the 20th century coordination chemistry developed which broadened the understanding of the chemical bond to transition metal ions. Therefore the characterization of metal ions in biological systems and in particular those bound to proteins has flourished. 

Inorganic Chemistry Mechanisms 

The general interest in the chemistry of and in solutions has played an important role for a long time.1 Substrates dissolved in solution reacting with each other under formation of new products is one of the most straightforward approaches. Problems originating due to gas phase or solid phase reaction conditions are avoided and many processes are accelerated in solution because of the possible close contact, the high concentration (compared to the gas phase) and the good mobility (compared to the solid phase) of the substrates. 

The so-called homogeneous catalysis, where a catalyst, often a metal complex dissolved in a solvent, reacts with one or more reactants to generate valuable products, is a very important process widely used by industry today.2 However, solvents differ in many of their properties and many efforts are made prior to the realization of new inventions to find the appropriate solvent for the selected reaction. Solvents can have an important impact on the outcome of chemical reactions. 

The solubility of the reactants and products is one of the most fundamental considerations, but also other aspects of the solvent like viscosity, melting point, polarity or the density of a solvent can influence reactions of dissolved substrates.Every solvent has its unique properties which can be utilized to the advantage of a certain process. However, as industrial applications become more and more complex, and the requirements for the success of new highly sophisticated operational sequences are more and more based on the fine adjustment of all components, the need for solvents with freely tunable properties is increasing.



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