Genetics and Heredity

Genetics and HeredityGenetics is the analysis of heredity, the procedure where a parent passes specific genes onto their kids. A person's look, hair color, height, eye color and skin color are determined by genes. Other characteristics impacted by heredity:

Likelihood of getting specific diseases

Mental abilities

Natural talents

An abnormal characteristic (anomaly) passed down via families (inherited) may:

Have no impact on your health or well being, for instance, it may simply involve a white patch of hair or a long earlobe

Be of minor consequence, for instance, color blindness

Have a dramatic impact on your quality or length of life

For many genetic disorders, genetic counseling is advised. Lots of people may also want to find prenatal diagnosis.

The phrases abnormality, anomaly, defect, disorder, disease and syndrome are not employed consistently and do not have precise definitions. 

What is a Genetic Disorder

A genetic disorder or disease is the outcome of changes or mutations, in a persons DNA. A mutation is an alteration in the letters (DNA sequence) that constitute a gene. This is occasionally known as a spelling mistake. Genes code with regard to proteins, the molecules that perform most of the work, carry out most life functions and constitute the majority of cellular structures. Whenever a gene is mutated to ensure that its protein product can no more carry out its normal function, a disorder can easily result. 

Some genetic diseases are known as Mendelian disorders they are due to mutations that take place in the DNA sequence of an individual gene. These are often rare diseases; a few examples are cystic fibrosis and Huntingtonís disease. Numerous genetic diseases tend to be multifactorial they are due to mutations in several genes compounded through environmental factors. Some samples of these are cancer, heart disease and diabetes. 

Types of Genetic Disorders

You can find four different types of genetic disorders: Multi-factorial (polygenic or complex), Single Gene (Monogenic or Mendelian), Mitochondrial and Chromosomal. 

Single Gene Disorders: Due to mutations or changes that take place in the DNA sequence of one, single gene. You can find about 6,000 recognized single-gene disorders and these take place in about 1/200 births. Examples contain sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis and Marfans Syndrome.

Multi-factorial or AKA Polygenic: Due to a combination of factors resulting in mutations in numerous genes. The impact of the environment on the genetic apparatus is the important in making genetic predisposition to disease become manifest

Chromosomal: Chromosomes are carriers of genetic material and therefore missing components or added copies of components can result in disorders and diseases. 

Mitochondrial: This is recognized as rare at this time and is a result of mutations in the non-chromosomal DNA of mitochondria. 

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