Linus Pauling explained about the hybridization to describe about the uniform effective bond development of molecules such as methane. In methane carbon should make use of one’s orbital and 3 p orbitals within the excited state to bond with four hydrogen atoms.
Therefore all the four bonds must be different. However in practice all the bonds tend to be uniform in nature. So Pauling suggested that the atomic orbitals are combined together to provide hybridized orbitals.
Atomic orbitals of the appropriate energy and orientation in the identical atom are hybridized which means that the atomic orbitals are mixed to form hybrid orbitals. The whole number of hybrid orbitals created is always equal to the amount of atomic orbitals that are hybridized.
Types of Hybrid Orbitals
Hybrid orbitals are created by the blending of existing orbitals (2p, 3d, 4s....and so on) to form new ones which are more directional and as a result able to overlap more successfully with the orbitals of an additional atom. The number of hybrid orbitals that an atom can easily form is dictated by two criteria.
The number of valence level orbitals that are accessible for the atom.
Law of conservation of orbitals that is the amount of hybrid orbitals formed should equal the number of orbitals that are employed in the creation of the hybrid orbitals.
Physical studies of the easiest organic compound, methane (CH 4), demonstrate the following:
all of the hydrogen-carbon-hydrogen bond angles are the same
all of the carbon-hydrogen bond lengths are equivalent
all of the bonds are covalent
all of the bond angles are around 110°
The ground state, or unexcited state, of the carbon atom ( Z = 6) gets the following electron configuration.
To achieve equivalent bond lengths, all the orbitals could have to be the same kind. The development of identical orbitals takes place in nature by a hybridization procedure. Hybridization is an interior linear combination of atomic orbitals, where the wave functions of the atomic s and p orbitals are added together to build new hybrid wave functions. When 4 atomic orbitals are added together, four hybrid orbitals form. All these hybrid orbitals has a single part s character and three parts p character and, therefore, are referred to as sp 3 hybrid orbitals.
As electrons are in continual motion round the nucleus of an atom, it is almost impossible to identify exactly where the electrons positioned in molecular bonding. However, electrons do not just circle close to the nucleus but rather roam in certain areas. The word orbital explains the likely area of an electron in the location around the nucleus. Orbital hybridization is the concept of joining atomic orbitals to produce distinct new patterns suitable with regard to atomic bonding properties.
Orbitals are explained by the shape of the location where the electron is. The types of orbitals are named s, p, d and f each with its own particular shape. In hybridization, just s and p orbitals are joined to create various patterns. S-orbitals are symmetrical, spherical orbitals, while p-orbitals are elongated, figure-eight shapes that resemble 2 balloons attached at the ends. P-orbitals also stick to a specific plane, as opposed to s-orbitals, which are a complete sphere.
Types of Hybrid Orbitals are: