Wave, in physics, the exchange of energy from the oscillatory motion or regular vibration, either of a few material medium or through the variation in magnitude of the area vectors of an electromagnetic field. Numerous familiar phenomena are related to energy transfer in the type of waves. Sound is actually a longitudinal wave that moves through material media through alternatively forcing the molecules from the medium nearer together, then spreading them separate.
Light and other types of electromagnetic radiation travel via space as transverse waves; the displacements at right angles towards the direction of the waves are the field intensity vectors instead of motions of the material particles of some medium. With the progression of the quantum theory, it had been found that particles in motion also provide certain wave properties, such as an associated wavelength and frequency linked to their energy and momentum. Thus, the analysis of waves and wave motion provides applications throughout the entire array of physical phenomena.
Waves may be classified based on the direction of vibration compared to that of the energy exchange. In longitudinal or compressional, waves the vibration is in the identical direction as the transfer of energy; in transverse waves the vibration is at right angles for the transfer of energy; in torsional waves the vibration contains a twisting motion as the medium rotates forward and backward around the direction of energy transfer.
The three types of waves are highlighted by an example where a coil spring is held stretched out by two people. If the individual holding one end pulls several coils toward himself and releases them, a longitudinal wave will move along the spring, with coils alternately getting pressed closer together, next stretched apart, as the wave moves.
If the first individual then shakes his end down and up or from side to side, a transverse wave will move along the spring. Finally, if he holds several coils and twists them round the axis of the spring, a torsional wave will move along the spring.
Waves are due to wind blowing on the top of the sea i.e. the air dragging on the water surface. Energy is transferred through the air towards the sea and the waves are caused by this transfer. It is now usually accepted that waves are formed by 2 mechanisms. The very first starts by generating small waves from a totally flat sea whilst the next takes over from the first at a specific point and permits the waves to develop into bigger ones until some limit is reached whereby they cannot develop any further.
Capillary WavesAt the start if wave generation are the tiny waves or bumps known as capillary waves. They are produced from a flat calm ocean. The primary factor associated with the generation of these tiny weaves is the fact that the wind when it blows does not blow evenly. The wind will never blow horizontally, additionally, it goes down and up and changes directions a bit. These disturbances are sufficient to start to drive air down on the ocean surface making tiny down and up motions on the top of the water itself.