Structure and Bond Properties

Structure and Bond PropertiesBonding is how the atoms are held together.

The structure is the way in which the atoms are set up relative to one another.

You can find two main types of structure: molecular and giant.

Giant structures carry on indefinitely, whereas molecular structures are comprised of groups of atoms.

Three principal factors are essential in determining the properties of a substance:

The kind of basic particles it includes. The substance can contain ions, molecules or atoms. For instance, if it has ions (such as sodium chloride), then it will conduct electricity when dissolved or molten in water.

How a basic particles are bonded with each other. The bonding might be covalent, ionic, metallic or weak intermolecular forces. The stronger the bonds, the greater the boiling/melting point and the solidity of the substance.

The way the particles are set up relative to each other. The particles may be set up in 1 dimensional plains (for example in polymers), 2 dimensional sheets (like clays) or in numerous kind of 3-dimensional arrangements.

Structure of Bonds

A chemical bond is caused by an attraction between ions or atoms. The kinds of bonds that the molecule contains will figure out its physical properties, for example hardness, melting point, electrical and thermal solubility and conductivity.

Ionic bonds are caused by an electrostatic attraction among ions that have opposite charges; quite simply, anions and cations. Ionic bonds generally form between nonmetals and metals; elements that take part in ionic bonds in many cases are from opposite ends of the periodic table and provide an electronegativity difference more than 1.67.

Covalent bonds form whenever electrons are shared among atoms instead of transferred from one atom to other. However, this sharing rarely happens equally due to course no two atoms have the identical electronegativity value.

Multiple bonds improve electron density between 2 nuclei: they reduce nuclear repulsion while improving the nucleus to electron density attractions. The nuclei move nearer together, meaning that double bonds are smaller than single bonds and triple bonds are shortest of all.

Structure and Properties of Water

Water has got the chemical formula H2O: a single molecule of water provides two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to an individual oxygen atom.

The Hexagonal Structure of Ice

As a naturally taking place crystalline inorganic solid having an ordered structure, ice is regarded as a mineral. It possesses a normal crystalline structure according to the molecule of water, which contains a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms: H-O-H.

Water is odorless and tasteless.

Water is a fluid at standard pressure and temperature.

Water can easily act as either a base or an acid.

Water is transparent within the visible electromagnetic spectrum.

Water is a universal solvent, dissolving numerous substances present in nature.

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