The Process of Cellular Respiration

The Process of Cellular RespirationAll of us need energy to function and we obtain this energy through the foods we consume. The most successful way for cells to harvest energy saved in food is via the process of cellular respiration, a catabolic pathway for that production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP, a top energy molecule, is expended by functioning cells. The process of cellular respiration takes place in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It has three principal stages: the citric acid cycle, glycolysis and electron transport.

The three main process of cellular respiration are:

The Citric Acid Cycle:

The Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs cycle starts after the two molecules of the 3 carbon sugar made in glycolysis are changed to a slightly various compound (acetyl CoA). Via a series of intermediate steps, a number of compounds able to storing high energy electrons tend to be produced along with two ATP molecules.


Glycolysis literally signifies splitting sugars. Glucose, a 6 carbon sugar, is separated into two molecules of a 3 carbon sugar. In the process, two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of ATP and two high energy electron carrying molecules of NADH are created.

Electron Transport:

Electron Transport needs oxygen directly. The electron carry chain is a series of electron carriers within the membrane of the mitochondria inside eukaryotic cells. Through a number of reactions, the high energy electrons are passed to oxygen. In the process, a gradient is created and in the end ATP is produced.

Cellular Respiration in Plants

Organisms, for example plants, can easily trap the energy in natural light through photosynthesis and store it inside the chemical bonds of carbohydrate molecules. The main carbohydrate created through photosynthesis is actually glucose. Other kinds of organisms, including fungi, animals, protozoa, and a big portion of the bacteria, are not able to carry out this process. Therefore, these organisms must count on the carbohydrates created in plants to have the energy required for their metabolic processes.

Throughout the process of cellular respiration, co2 is given off. This carbon dioxide could be used by plant cells throughout photosynthesis to make new carbohydrates. Additionally in the process of cellular respiration, oxygen gas is needed to serve as an acceptor of electrons. This oxygen is similar to the oxygen gas given off throughout photosynthesis. Therefore, there is an interrelationship among the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, namely the entrapment of energy obtainable in sunlight and the provision of the energy with regard to cellular processes in the type of ATP.

Cellular Respiration in Animals

Glucose is actually a carbohydrate, a compound of hydrogen and carbon. The bonds in between the hydrogen and the carbon atoms are really strong. In the cells, the substrate, usually glucose, is broken down into water and carbon dioxide in the existence of oxygen. This process smashes the bonds between hydrogen and carbon and so releases energy.

Also cellular respiration is the process of inhaling on a cellular level. Every living cells of animals proceed through this process. The cells get oxygen and glucose (a simple sugar) to make energy.  Glucose and oxygen are delivered into the mitochondria of a cell (an organelle or small unit inside a cell). The mitochondria breaks apart the oxygen and glucose and reorganizes the molecules into ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the molecule of chemical energy), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

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