Those with double bond are known as alkenes. Those with one double bond possess the formula CnH2n. Those made up of triple bonds are referred to as alkynes, with general formula CnH2n-2.
Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) are the simplest of the hydrocarbon types. They are made up entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. Saturated hydrocarbons are the foundation of petroleum fuels and are located as either linear or branched species.
Cycloalkanes are hydrocarbons containing a number of carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are linked. The general formula for any saturated hydrocarbon made up of one ring is CnH2n.
Aromatic hydrocarbons, also called arenes, are hydrocarbons that have a minimum of one aromatic ring.
A hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing entirely of carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons from where one hydrogen atom has been eliminated are functional groups, referred to as hydrocarbyls. Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkenes, alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkyne based compounds are various kinds of hydrocarbons.
Many hydrocarbons found on earth naturally take place in crude oil, in which decomposed organic matter gives an abundance of hydrogen and carbon which, when bonded, can catenate to make seemingly limitless chains. Examples are Ethane, Methane, butane, propane, hexane and pentane. Everyday examples: Petrol, LP gas (cooking gas), petroleum gel, candle wax, some plastics such as those shopping bags and milk bottles are made of, acetylene (used for welding).
Due to differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula stays different between hydrocarbons; in linear or straight-run alkenes, alkynes and alkanes, the sum of bonded hydrogen lessens in alkynes and alkenes because of the self-bonding or catenation of carbon preventing whole saturation of the hydrocarbon by the creation of triple or double bonds.
This inherent capacity of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation and allows hydrocarbon to make more complex molecules, including cyclohexane and in rarer cases, arenes including benzene. This ability arises from the fact that the bond character among carbon atoms is completely non polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat even because of the same electronegativity values of the elements (~0.30) and does not lead to the formation of an electrophile.
Typically, with catenation arrives the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and a rise in the sum of energy necessary for bond cleavage because of strain exerted upon the molecule; in molecules for example cyclohexane, this is called ring strain and takes place due to the destabilized spatial electron setup of the atom.