Types of Plant Cells

Collenchyma Cells

Collenchyma cells have a assistance function in plants, particularly in young plants. These cells aid to support plants while not restraining growth because of their lack of secondary walls and the lack of a hardening agent in their main walls.

Parenchyma Cells

Parenchyma cells are often depicted as the common plant cell since they are not very specialized. These cells synthesize and store organic products within the plant. The majority of the plant's metabolism occurs in these cells.

Water Conducting Cells

Water conducting cells of xylem also have a support function in plants but as opposed to collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid.

Sclerenchyma Cells

Sclerenchyma cells also provide a support function in plants however unlike collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid.

Sieve Tube Members

Sieve tube members of phloem carry out organic nutrients including sugar throughout the plant.

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells

Cytokinesis in plant cells is more complicated than in animals, as it requires building a cell plate as the ultimate step in producing two cells. The cell plate is made in the center of phragmoplast through fusion of Golgi derived vesicles. This step imposes an architectural problem in which ballooning of the fused structures needs to be avoided to produce a plate instead.

This is apparently attained by squeezing the vesicles into dumbbell shaped vesicle tubule vesicle structures with the aid of phragmoplastin, a homolog of dynamin. These structures tend to be fused at their ends in a star shaped body making a tubulovesicular honeycomb like structure sandwiched among the positive ends of the phragmoplast microtubules.

Plant Cell Functions

Plant cells are of 3 fundamental types, namely, collenchyma, sclerenchyma and parenchyma. All these cells have various structure and carry out varied functions in the overall working of the plant. The function of these three plant cells are:

Collenchyma Cells: Collenchyma cells are living only throughout maturity and have two walls (primary and secondary). Initially, they are related to parenchyma cells, which later differentiates into certain collenchyma cells.

Parenchyma Cells: The parenchyma cells are living and perform numerous functions such as storage, light harvesting and gas exchange. A number of them have the ability to differentiate into various types of cells as per the needs of the plant.

Sclerenchyma Cells: Sclerenchyma cells are lifeless at maturity and possess thick secondary walls with lignin deposition. These cells function exclusively as mechanical help of the plant. 

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