The 2 main stem cell types are adult stem cells (i.e., somatic stem cells) and embryonic stem cells (ES) cells. Other types, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are made in the lab by reprogramming adult cells to state ES characteristics.
(ES) cells are separated from the internal cell mass of blastocysts of preimplantation stage embryos. These cells need specific signs to differentiate to the wanted cell type; if simply injected straight, they will differentiate into numerous different types of cells, leading to a tumor derived from this abnormal pluripotent cell development (a teratoma). The directed differentiation of ES cells and avoidance of transplant rejection are only two of the hurdles that ES cell researchers still face.
Stem cells have two special qualities: they can copy themselves for an unlimited time period and they can develop into all the body's various cell types
When a stem cell copies itself, each of the 2 new cells can either stay a stem cell or become another kind of cell including a blood cell, a muscle cell or a brain cell.
Several stem cells develop into bones, organs and tissues of the body, however other stem cells operate in its immune and repair systems. Known as adult stem cells, they generate replacement cells for those that are lost due to disease, injury or the normal wear and tear of aging.
Adult stem cells can be utilized for research and treatment, however most researchers believe that embryonic stem cells have far more potential to study, treat and cure illnesses.
Not all stem cells are alike.
Stem cells are cells that are not terminally differentiated and are thus able to generate cells of other kinds. Medical researchers hope they can be utilized to grow certain organs or tissues. You can find three types of stem cells: pluripotent, totipotent and multipotent.
A single totipotent stem cell can develop into a whole organism. Pluripotent stem cells cannot grow into an entire organism, however they can become any other kind of cell in the body. Multipotent stem cells can just become particular types of cells: e.g. bone cells or blood cells.
Adult stem cells
Stem cells can be seen in adult human beings. Adult stem cells reproduce everyday to provide specific specialized cells - for instance 200 billion red blood cells are produced each day in your body. Until recently it was believed that each of these cells could generate just one particular type of cell this is known as differentiation.
For more than 30 years, bone marrow stem cells have been employed to treat cancer sufferers with conditions including leukemia and lymphoma.
Embryonic stem cells
Stem cells that originate from embryos are seen to have the most potential due to their totipotent properties, they have the ability to grow in to any of the 200 cell types in the body.
Potential treatmentsResearch injecting neural (adult) stem cells in to the minds of rats could be astonishingly effective in treating cancerous tumours. With traditional methods brain cancer can be almost not possible to treat because it spreads so quickly.