What are the Chromosomes




A chromosome is an individual chain of DNA that is coiled and super coiled to make dense thread-like pieces.

Chromosomes also include DNA bound histones or proteins that stabilize and consolidate the DNA and control its functions.

DNA and histone proteins are packaged into structures referred to as chromosomes.

A chromosome may be linear or circular in shape, with eukaryotic or nucleated cells possessing linear chromosomes and prokaryotic cells generally containing round chromosomes. Chromosomes may also exist exterior of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells, within the mitochondria or the power houses of cells.

Chromosomes in Humans

Chromosomes figure out almost everything from eye color and hair color to sex. Whether you are a female or male depends upon the absence or presence of certain chromosomes.

Human cells include 23 sets of chromosomes for a total of 46. You can find 22 sets of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are the Y chromosome and the X chromosome.

Sex Chromosomes:

In human being sexual reproduction, two distinct gametes fuse to make a zygote. Gametes are reproductive cells created by a kind of cell division referred to as meiosis. They contain just one set of chromosomes and are thought to be haploid.

The female gamete, known as the ovum, is nonmotile and relatively huge in comparison to the male gamete. The male gamete, known as the spermatozoan, is fairly motile and usually provides a flagellum. When the haploid female and male gametes unite in a process known as fertilization, they form what is referred to as a zygote. The zygote is diploid, which means that it consists of two sets of chromosomes.

Function of Chromosomes

Chromosomes carry genes. They are in charge of making the organisms what they are by supporting a cell to expand, reproduce and grow.

In prokaryotes or cells which do not contain a nucleus, such as bacteria, the chromosome is typically, circular in structure. In spot of a nucleus, prokaryotes contain what is called a nucleoid, which contains the DNA. In eukaryotes or cells which contain a nucleus, the chromosome is linear in structure. 

In the broadest sense, chromosome functions refer to manage of all the actions of a living cell. These functions can be elaborated as:

Cell Division Process

Chromosomes are essential for the process of cell division and are responsible for the replication, division, and creation of daughter cells that contain correct sequences of DNA and proteins.

Gene Packaging

Genes are located at a particular point on a chromosome, known as its locus. Each chromosome contains DNA in a double helix structure, which houses thousands of genes along the strand, each with their own loci.

Packaging of Regulatory Elements

The DNA present in a chromosome houses genes, regulatory elements, and other nucleotide sequences. The regulatory sequence present in the nucleic acid molecule affects the accentuation and degeneration of specific genes, producing a variation in parent-daughter genetic traits.





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