After the initial subculture, the main culture becomes called a cell line or subclone. Cell lines derived from main cultures possess a limited life span and as they are passaged, cells with the greatest growth ability predominate, leading to a degree of genotypic and phenotypic uniformity in the population.
Primary culture means stage of the culture following the cells are separated from the tissue and proliferated below the appropriate circumstances until they occupy all the available substrate (i.e., reach confluence).
If a subpopulation of a cell line is positively chosen from the culture by cloning or some other technique, this cell line becomes a cell strain. A cell strain usually acquires extra genetic changes subsequent for the initiation of the parent line.
Stem cells are present in most of the multicellular organisms. These cells can easily regenerate themselves by differentiation and mitosis. Stem cells present in mammals can be classified as embryonic stem cells seen in blastocysts and the adult stem cells within the adult tissues. Cell culture can be employed to grow and transform stem cells into specialized cells.
Apart from being able to renew by themselves, the stem cells can differentiate into specialized kinds of cells. This ability in the stem cells is referred to as potency. Multipotent stem cells can create cells of a closely connected group while unipotent stem cells can generate just one cell type. Totipotent cells are made from the fusion of the sperm cells and the egg.
Stem Cell Research:
Stem cell research is a continuous activity of interest between the researchers in this area. Since quite a while, researchers have been investigating the usage of stem cells of animals for their potential used in treating incurable illnesses. Stem cell research has brought some achievement but also raised several ethical issues.
Mammalian cells culture is cultured by a number of methods at a variety of volumes for that production of diagnostic and therapeutic proteins. The cells are developed in a fermentation or bioreactor vessel. The initial step in the purification procedure is the elimination of whole cells, cell debris and particulates before further downstream unit operations.
Cell Culture Media Types
Cell culture medium generally contains vitamins, amino acids, electrolytes and may include growth factors, hormones, animal serum, plant hydrolysates, antioxidants, antibiotics, cell stabilizers, antifoams and other components. Types of media contain serum free, serum based, protein free and animal free or chemically defined. Serum based and serum free media are broadly used since they can be employed to grow a broad array of cell lines and cell types for example NS0 or CHO cells.