Geophysics is actually the physics of the Planet and its atmosphere in space; also the analysis of the Earth utilizing quantitative physical methods. The word geophysics occasionally refers only for the geological applications: Earth's shape; its magnetic fields and gravitational; its composition and inner structure; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of volcanism, magmas and rock development. However, contemporary geophysics organizations make use of a broader definition that contains the hydrological cycle such as ice and snow; fluid dynamics of the atmosphere and the seas; magnetism and electricity within the magnetosphere and ionosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous issues related to the Moon and other planets.
Although geophysics had been only recognized as a different discipline in the nineteenth century, its origins return to ancient history. The very first magnetic compasses go back to the fourth century BC and the initial seismoscope was created in 132 BC. Geophysical techniques were developed with regard to navigation; Isaac Newton utilized his theory of mechanics for the precession and the tides of the equinox; and instruments have been developed to calculate the Earth's shape, gravity field and density, as well as the elements of the water cycle.
Journal of geophysical research atmospheres contains chemistry and physics of the atmosphere and the lithospheric, atmospheric-biospheric and hydrospheric interface. JGR-Biogeosciences concentrates on biogeosciences of the Planet system in the present, past and future and the extension of this research to planetary research. The emerging area of biogeosciences covers the intellectual interface among biology and the geosciences and tries to understand the functions of the Earth system around temporal scales and multiple spatial.
Research in biogeosciences may use numerous lines of evidence drawn from different fields to obtain a holistic knowing of freshwater, terrestrial and extreme environments and marine ecosystems. Specific subjects within the scope of the section contain experimental, process-based theoretical and field studies of biogeochemistry, atmosphere-, biogeophysics, land- and biomineralization, ocean-ecosystem interactions, astrobiology, existence in extreme environments, geomicrobiology, microbial processes and evolutionary geobiology.
Journal of geophysical research impact factor concentrates on the chemical, physical and biological procedures that affect the function and form of the surface of the solid Earth total temporal and spatial scales, which includes eolian, fluvial and coastal sediment transport; glacial and periglacial activity; hillslope mass movements; pedogenesis and weathering and surface manifestations of volcanism and tectonism. JGR-Oceans addresses biological, physical and chemical oceanography.JGR-Planets handles the geophysics, geology, atmospheres, geochemistry, biology and dynamics of the planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, rings and meteorites; planetary origins; and planetary detection. Research of the Earth are included once they concern exogenic effects or the comparison of our planet to other planets. JGR-Solid Earth concentrates on the chemistry and physics of the solid Earth and the liquid central of the Earth, paleomagnetism, geomagnetism, marine geology/geophysics, physics and chemistry of rocks, minerals, seismology, volcanology, gravity, geodesy and tectonophysics.